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Some of the first instances of sculpture in the world are from Pakistan’s Indus Valley civilization, in whose ruins have been found sculptures of all sizes in stone and bronze. During the 2nd and1st centuries BCE in what is now southern Afghanistan and northern Pakistan, sculptures became more complex, representing episodes of the Buddha’s life and teachings through techniques and styles brought by invading armies, wandering artists, and local technical and artistic advances.
In addition to the sculptural works of the Indus Valley civilization, some of the best-known ancient sculptures are from the Buddhist Kingdom of Gandhara, which lasted from the 6th century BCE to the 11th century CE in and around the Peshawar Valley. Terra cotta clay and stone figures, as well as utilitarian and decorative works, have been found throughout the region and are part of Pakistan’s rich collection of antiquities.
sculptural works include geometric sculptures in metal and wood. Some
sculptures are influenced by forms taken from the Arabic script of the
Quran . Pakistani sculptors create works ranging from small items that
might sit on a shelf to giant monuments of concrete, steel, fiberglass,
bronze, and stone. Non-traditional sculptures depicting animals and other
living things have become more common.